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Author Profiles. This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Reviewed Teaching Collection This activity has received positive reviews in a peer review process involving five review categories. This page first made public: Apr 10, Summary This activity introduces students to the fact that climate change occurs at timescales of 1 year to 10 8 years and there are various drivers to explain these changes.

Change 1 , 42—45 Liu, J. A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change.

Timescales for ecological change in regulated rivers

Change 64 , — Ramirez-Villegas, J. Empirical approaches for assessing impacts of climate change on agriculture: the EcoCrop model and a case study with grain sorghum. Jarvis, A. Is cassava the answer to African climate change adaptation? Plant Biol. Gabriel, L. Simulating Cassava growth and yield under potential conditions in Southern Brazil.

Iizumi, T. Dependency of parameter values of a crop model on the spatial scale of simulation.

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Earth Syst. Identifying traits for genotypic adaptation using crop models. You, L.

Submission history

Generating plausible crop distribution maps for sub-Saharan Africa using a spatially disaggregated data fusion and optimization approach. Hodson, D. African Maize Research Atlas Vol. Liu, C. Selecting thresholds for the prediction of species occurrence with presence-only data. Taylor, K. An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design.

Kirtman, B. Collins, M. Hawkins, E. Calibration and bias correction of climate projections for crop modelling: an idealised case study over Europe. Hyman, G. Strategic approaches to targeting technology generation: assessing the coincidence of poverty and drought-prone crop production.

Piontek, F. Multisectoral climate impact hotspots in a warming world. Joshi, M. Change 1 , — Ray, D. Yield trends are insufficient to double global crop production by Download references. We thank K. Jones from CIAT for help on scripting some of the analyses. Authors thank C. Navarro and J. Koehler, S. Jennings and S. Whitfield from the University of Leeds for insightful comments. We thank numerous anonymous reviewers for their insightful feedback.

Time Scales of Climate Changes | PBS LearningMedia

All authors discussed results and commented on the manuscript. Correspondence to Julian Ramirez-Villegas. To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. Frontiers in Plant Science Weather, Climate, and Society Annals of Botany Article metrics. Advanced search. ENSO events are major source of interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2 growth rate due to their effect on fluxes through land and on surface ocean temperature and precipitation.

NAO consists of opposing variations of surface atmospheric pressure near Iceland and near the Azores. It corresponds to fluctuations in the strength of the main westerly winds across the Atlantic into Europe, and thus to fluctuations in the associated cyclones with their frontal systems. SAM is an interannual to centennial climatic variability that influences zonal i.

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During the initial positive phase, SAM is associated with enhanced westerly winds over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which flows around Antarctica. This favors the strengthening of the current and the northward expansion of sea ice. To compensate there is enhanced pole-ward transport and rising of deep waters at Antarctic continental margin. During the opposite negative phase a weakening of both zonal and meridional i.

Timescales of transformational climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan African agriculture

Goosse H. Barriat, W. Lefebvre, M.